Warning - the following instructions will ravage your machine and then eat all the food in your refrigerator, and unlike the dwarves, they won't be kidding about breaking your dishes.
This example assumes FreeBSD 13 or thereabouts, a pair of disks, and a desire to mirror everything. It accomodates both UEFI and legacy installs, and defaults to a partitioning scheme that can have both installs at once.
Unlike bsdinstall's default for ZFS, it doesn't set explicit mountpoints for datasets, but instead relies on inheritance.
While it's possible to use gmirror for the EFI boot partition, a notion lifted from CentOS, some UEFI firmware has been known to write files to the ESP, without awareness that it's writing to half of a mirror. While uncommon, this will result in your ESP mirror being inconsistent. Setting the mirror balance mode to "prefer" and causing a resync at boot might help work around this, but better still is the method adopted by Ubuntu 20.04, wherein the install maintains and updates multiple ESPs. As FreeBSD doesn't automate bootcode update, there's no scaffolding to be rewritten to support this, and this is the approach taken by the current version of this guide.
This set of instructions set up a pair of freebsd-boot partitions, a pair of ESP partitions, GELI-encrypted swap on a gmirror, and a GELI-encrypted root pool. (It costs almost nothing in disk space and is useful to accomodate both legacy and UEFI installs. The instructions are easy to adapt if you don't want legacy. An example of why you might want this: I have a SuperMicro system that corrupts the back-up GPT partition reliably in UEFI mode, but not in legacy mode.)
You might be interested in the InstallEnvironment I use for installs.
# We're clearing off the disks to start. This is a destructive operation. gpart destroy -F ada0 gpart destroy -F ada1 # Set up new GPT partition tables. gpart create -s gpt ada0 gpart create -s gpt ada1 # Add partitions. We'll access them by name everywhere. # Note: freebsd-boot is now a minimum of 544k, up from 128k, as in # FreeBSD 13 128k seems to no longer work, while gpart(8) says: # The freebsd-boot partition should be smaller than 545 KB. # In practise, so far this seems to work everywhere I've tried it. # Boot partitions, first legacy and then UEFI/ESP: gpart add -t freebsd-boot -s 544k -l boot0 ada0 gpart add -t freebsd-boot -s 544k -l boot1 ada1 gpart add -t efi -s 1m -l efi0 ada0 gpart add -t efi -s 1m -l efi1 ada1 # ESP must be vfat/fat32: newfs_msdos /dev/gpt/efi0 newfs_msdos /dev/gpt/efi1 # Swap - these will go into a geom_mirror: gpart add -t freebsd-swap -l swap0 -a 1m -s 8192m ada0 gpart add -t freebsd-swap -l swap1 -a 1m -s 8192m ada1 # CAVEAT: If you have mismatched disks, you'll want to make these have a # matching size: gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l tank0 -a 1m ada0 gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l tank1 -a 1m ada1 # Set up swap gmirror kldload geom_mirror gmirror label -v swap gpt/swap0 gpt/swap1 # There's a quirk in GPT label handling. If you run into it, unrelated # labels will disappear as others are consumed by gmirror. For instance, # in this set, after consuming gpt/efi0 and gpt/efi1, I might find that # gpt/swap1 has gone missing. If you hit this, you can set up your # mirrors using the /dev/ada* names, rather than the GPT labels. Issue # documented in BZ#230246. # Set up GELI geli init -s 4096 -b -g gpt/tank0 geli init -s 4096 -b -g gpt/tank1 geli attach gpt/tank0 geli attach gpt/tank1 # Create the root pool. zpool create -R /mnt -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -O mountpoint=/ \ -O atime=off -O canmount=off -O compression=on \ tank mirror gpt/tank0.eli gpt/tank1.eli zfs create -o canmount=off -o mountpoint=none tank/ROOT zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/ROOT/default zpool set bootfs=tank/ROOT/default tank zfs create tank/home zfs create -o canmount=off tank/usr zfs create tank/usr/local zfs create tank/usr/obj zfs create tank/usr/src zfs create tank/usr/ports zfs create tank/usr/ports/distfiles zfs create -o canmount=off tank/var zfs create tank/var/jail zfs create tank/var/log zfs create tank/var/tmp zfs create tank/tmp # Copy over the zpool cache so we'll have it on the running system. mkdir -p /mnt/boot/zfs cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/boot/zfs # Personal preference - I don't like /usr/home. ln -s /home /mnt/usr/home # Don't forget to take the option of a shell to finish configuration at the # end of the install. exit
The install will proceed.
When offered a post-install shell, take it, and:
cat >> /boot/loader.conf <<END zfs_load="YES" geom_eli_load="YES" geom_mirror_load="YES" zpool_cache_load="YES" zpool_cache_name="/boot/zfs/zpool.cache" zpool_cache_type="/boot/zfs/zpool.cache" vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:tank/ROOT/default" END cat >> /etc/rc.conf <<END zfs_enable="YES" zfsd_enable="YES" END cat >> /etc/fstab <<END /dev/gpt/efi0 /boot/efi0 msdosfs rw,late 0 0 /dev/gpt/efi1 /boot/efi1 msdosfs rw,late 0 0 /dev/mirror/swap.eli none swap sw 0 0 END # If /dev/ has been depopulated - I see this under 11+ rm /dev/null mount -t devfs devfs /dev # Make mountpoints and mount ESP: mkdir /boot/efi0 mkdir /boot/efi1 mount -t msdosfs /dev/gpt/efi0 /boot/efi0 mount -t msdosfs /dev/gpt/efi1 /boot/efi1 # UEFI with fallback naming: # If we have a box that's happy with the fallback naming, we can just do # that. You won't be able to do this ''and'' have room for a named copy # of the bootloader using efibootmgr, so please choose only one. mkdir -p /boot/efi0/efi/boot mkdir -p /boot/efi1/efi/boot cp /boot/loader.efi /boot/efi0/efi/boot/bootx64.efi cp /boot/loader.efi /boot/efi1/efi/boot/bootx64.efi # UEFI with boot variables: kldload efirt mkdir -p /boot/efi0/efi/freebsd mkdir -p /boot/efi1/efi/freebsd cp /boot/loader.efi /boot/efi0/efi/freebsd/ cp /boot/loader.efi /boot/efi1/efi/freebsd/ efibootmgr -c -L freebsd0 -l ada0p2:/efi/freebsd/loader.efi efibootmgr -c -L freebsd1 -l ada1p2:/efi/freebsd/loader.efi # Check to see what numbers were actually assigned first. efibootmgr -a -b 1 efibootmgr -a -b 2 efibootmgr -o 1,2 # Install legacy bootcode as well: gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0 gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada1 # Note that the ordering command seems not to work, at least on some # hardware. You might be forced to set boot order manually on first # boot. Also note that the documentation is (was?) incorrect and shows # the Linux tool's syntax. BZ#230871 # You should be good to go at this point. Variations on this can include # setting up keys rather than passphrases for GELI. Also, note that you # can create "degraded arrays" in gmirror by only specifying one device. # This can be useful for initial set-up work where you intend to later # add the other half of a mirror. exit
Special cases, older instructions, and things with a limited audience but worth preserving:
# if needed (legacy BIOS with GPT) #gpart set -a lenovofix ada0 #gpart set -a lenovofix ada1
Post-install shell, load aesni if we're on FreeBSD < 13:
cat >> /boot/loader.conf <<END aesni_load="YES" END
Not needed for some time, but in the past it was necessary to specify this to get prompted during the loader's run, as opposed to after the kernel has launched. This was problematic given some USB keyboard that weren't set up properly in time to enter the passphrase(s). It's now evidently the default no no longer needs to be specified. (Version?)
cat >> /boot/loader.conf <<END geom_eli_passphrase_prompt="YES" END
FreeBSD efibootmgr(8) syntax has changed:
# With FreeBSD < 13.0, instead of the previously noted syntax: efibootmgr -a 1 efibootmgr -a 2